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The interface of CINTIL-Treebank Online Searcher is simple.

(1) To help you, we have examples of 3 different levels of difficulty: simple, complex and advanced.

(2) There is a text box where you must type the syntactic pattern you want to search.

(3) You can mark the option to the show the POS tag in the trees.

(4) You can choose the number of results returned (between 1 and 20 sentences).

(5) Once the search results are returned, use the navigation buttons and arrows to search for the next results.

(6) To view the tree just place the cursor on the sentence you want and click.

(7) The syntactic tree corresponding to the sentence will appear below.

(8) The dependency tree corresponding to the sentence will appear beneath the syntactic tree.

interface screenshot

Searching by linguistic tags

To start the search by linguistic tags, you must know the tags and syntax for searching.

The tagsets used in the annotation of CINTIL-Treebank are available for quick reference under the tab "Tagsets" at the top of this panel.

The table below presents the syntax and symbols used for searching in the CINTIL-Treebank. In the search by linguistic tags, tags should always be capitalized.

Expression Meaning Example
A << B A dominates B NP << N
A >> B A is dominated by B V >> VP
A < B A immediately dominates B PP < P
A > B A is immediately dominated by B CONJ > NP
A $ B A is a sister of B NP $ CONJ
A .. B A precedes B P .. POSS-M
A . B A immediately precedes B CONJ . VP
A ,, B A follows B CARD ,, VP
A , B A immediately follows B D-SP , NP-C
A <<, B B is a leftmost descendent of A VP <<, P
A <<;- B B is a rightmost descendent of A PP <<;- N
A >>, B A is a leftmost descendent of B ADV >>, S
A >>;- B A is a rightmost descendent of B S >>;- VP
A <, B B is the first child of A PP <, P
A >, B A is the first child of B V >, VP
A <- B B is the last child of A PP <- NP-C
A >- B A is the last child of B CARD >- D-SP
A <i B B is the ith-to-last child of A NP-C <1 D-SP
A >i B A is the ith-to-last child of B ADV >1 ADVP
A <: B B is the only child of A NP-C <: N
A >: B A is the only child of A N >: NP
A <<# B B is a head of phrase A D-SP <<# CARD
A <# B B is the immediate head of phrase A NP <# N
@A All tags that have string A @NP

Searching by regular expressions

It is possible to search with regular expressions. The usual notational conventions are followed:

Alternatives are introduced by the | (vertical bar) character: |
  • NP|VP matches all parse trees with a noun phrase and all parse trees with a verbal phrase.
There are three forms of expressing iteration.
The .* (final mark + star) operators permit that the character/expression preceding it is matched zero or more times, provided it is enclosed in bars /:
  • /NP.*/ matches any parse tree with tag NP, for example: NP, NP-C, NP-M e NP-SJ.
To delimit the beginning and end of a tag, you can use special characters ^ e $. This type of search is useful when you want to find parse trees with a composition of semantic roles and grammatical tags, provided it is enclosed in bars /:
  • /^NP.*.ARG1$/ matches any parse tree with beginning with tag NP, with any tag in the middle, but ending with tag ARG1, which indicates the semantic role of first argument, for example: NP-DO-ARG1 e NP-SJ-ARG1.

Searching by words

The search can also be performed in leaves of trees where the words occur.
To find any word, type it in the text box. For example: Portugal

Click the button "Search" and all sentences where the word exists will be shown below:
The search by words depends upon their spelling in the treebank. The word can be written both in upper or lower case.

To improve the search we can try words with different spellings. For example: Portugal|portugal|PORTUGAL

Searching by sentence identifier

All sentences in the CINTIL-Treebank have a unique number identifier. The identifier is shown when the sentence is returned on the screen.

The user can use this number to directly find sentences in the CINTIL-Treebank. In order to search for a sentence using its number identifier the user must make a note of the corresponding returned with the sentence. The search uses the pattern "ID:". For example, ID:a102 will select the sentence with identifier 102 in the CINTIL-Treebank. To visualize the parse tree just click on the sentence.

Search non-matching trees

The CINTIL-Treebank Searcher provides an option to find parse trees that don't have a determined pattern.
To use this search option, it is required to use the word "INV", following the colon ":". Thus, the parse trees where the pattern is not found are return as a result. For example, INV:VP will select all sentences that do not have verbal phrases as a result.

To visualize the parse tree just click on the sentence.

Phrasal and pre-terminal tags

Tag Category
A Adjective
AP Adjective Phrase
ADV Adverb
ADVP Adverb Phrase
C Complementizer
CP Complementizer Phrase
CARD Cardinal
CONJ Conjuction
CONJP Conjuction Phrase
D Determiner
DEM Demonstrative
N Noun
NP Noun Phrase
P Preposition
PP Preposition Phrase
POSS Possessive
QNT Predeterminer
S Sentence
V Verb
VP Verb Phrase

Part-of-speech tags

Tag Category Examples
ADJ Adjectives bom, brilhante, eficaz, …
ADV Adverbs hoje, já, sim, felizmente, …
CARD Cardinals zero, dez, cem, mil, …
CJ Conjunctions e, ou, tal como, …
CL Clitics o, lhe, se, …
CN Common Nouns computador, cidade, ideia, …
DA Definite Articles o, os, …
DEM Demonstratives este, esses, aquele, …
DFR Denominators of Fractions meio, terço, décimo, %, …
DGTR Roman Numerals VI, LX, MMIII, MCMXCIX, …
DGT Arabic Numerals 0, 1, 42, 12345, 67890, …
DM Discourse Marker olá, …
EADR Electronic Addresses, …
EOE End of Enumeration etc
EXC Exclamation ah, ei, …
GER Gerunds sendo, afirmando, vivendo, …
GERAUX Gerund "ter"/"haver" in compound tenses tendo, havendo
IA Indefinite Articles uns, umas, …
IND Indefinites tudo, alguém, ninguém, …
INF Infinitive ser, afirmar, viver, …
INFAUX Infinitive "ter"/"haver" in compound tenses ter, haver, …
INT Interrogatives quem, como, quando, …
ITJ Interjection bolas, caramba, …
LTR Letters a, b, c, …
MGT Magnitude Classes unidade, dezena, dúzia, resma, …
MTH Months janeiro, dezembro, …
NP Noun Phrases idem, …
ORD Ordinals primeiro, centésimo, penúltimo, …
PADR Part of Address Rua, av., rot., …
PNM Part of Name Lisboa, António, João, …
PNT Punctuation Marks ., ?, (, …
POSS Possessives meu, teu, seu, …
PPA Past Participles not in compound tenses sido, afirmados, vivida, …
PP Prepositional Phrases algures, …
PPT Past Participle in compound tenses sido, afirmado, vivido, …
PREP Prepositions de, para, em redor de, …
PRS Personals eu, tu, ele, …
QNT Quantifiers todos, muitos, nenhum, …
REL Relatives que, cujo, tal que, …
STT Social Titles Presidente, drª., prof., …
SYB Symbols @, #, &, …
TERMN Optional Terminations (s), (as), …
UM "um" or "uma" um, uma
UNIT Abbreviated Measurement Unit kg., km., …
VAUX Finite "ter" or "haver" in compound tenses temos, haveriam, …
V Verbs (other than PPA, PPT, INF or GER) falou, falaria, …
WD Week Days segunda, terça-feira, sábado, …
Tags for multi-word expressions
LADV1…LADVn Multi-Word Adverbs de facto, em suma, um pouco, …
LCJ1…LCJn Multi-Word Conjunctions assim como, já que, …
LDEM1…LDEMn Multi-Word Demonstratives o mesmo, …
LDFR1…LDFRn Multi-Word Denominators of Fractions por cento
LDM1…LDMn Multi-Word Discourse Markers pois não, até logo, …
LITJ1…LITJn Multi-Word Interjections meu Deus
LPRS1…LPRSn Multi-Word Personals a gente, si mesmo, V. Exa., …
LPREP1…LPREPn Multi-Word Prepositions através de, a partir de, …
LQD1…LQDn Multi-Word Quantifiers uns quantos, …
LREL1…LRELn Multi-Word Relatives tal como, …
Tags specific to the spoken corpus
EMP Emphasis
EL Extra-linguistic
PL Para-linguistic
FRG Fragment

Inflection tags

Tag Description
Tags for nominal categories
m Masculine
f Feminine
s Singular
p Plural
dim Diminutive
sup Superlative
comp Comparative
Tags for verbs
1 First Person
2 Second Person
3 Third Person
pi Presente do Indicativo
ppi Pretérito Perfeito do Indicativo
ii Pretérito Imperfeito do Indicativo
mpi Pretérito Mais que Perfeito do Indicativo
fi Futuro do Indicativo
c Condicional
pc Presente do Conjuntivo
ic Pretérito Imperfeito do Conjuntivo
fc Futuro do Conjuntivo
imp Imperativo
Tags for infinitive verbs
ifl Inflected
nifl Not Inflected

Gramatical function tags

Tag Category
C Complement
DO Direct Object
IO Indirect Object
M Modifier
N Relationship between words and named entities
OBL Oblique Complement
PRD Predicate
SJ Subject
SP Specifier

Semantic role tags

Tag Category
ADV Adverbial
ARG1 First Argument
ARG2 Second Argument
ARGA Causative agent of verb with causative alternance
CAU Cause
DIR Direction
EXT Extension
LOC Localization
MNR Mode
PNC Objective
POV Viewpoint
PRD Secondary predication
TMP Time